Public Health Care
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Many different approaches take place in public health for the elimination of existing problems and preventing new ones. Public health is one of the main components of the society.
The ecological model was appeared for better understanding human behavior and prevention of negative activities and effects. Later it was adapted to public care for “health promotion to depict interrelated systems at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels, illustrated as concentric circles.” (Wendel, 2015).
The first Individual level includes individual personality traits like genetic data, knowledge, attitude and epigenetics and all these factors affect on the individual as the base of his existence and in the majority independent from him.
The Interpersonal level consists of family culture and traditions, friends, caretaker behavior and has an impact on the individual as the formation of his personality influenced the nearest environment.
The third Institutional level consists of access to services of health promotion, physical activity, and other organizational components. It impacts on the preferences and choices.
The fourth Community level consists of such components as social norms, schools, workplaces and it impacts on the individual’s behavior, the manner and level of communication, his interests.
The fifth Societal level consists of societal factors and it has effect on the individual in awareness of themselves as part of society.
Scientists often relate ecological model’s levels to study and determine the impact o such public health problem as AIDS.
PRECEDE-PROCEED is another formal model that was developed for the solving the problems of public health. The transmission of issues to another community is the basic principle of this model. Holt (2015) states that we’ll treat it as a model not just for health intervention, but for community intervention in general. Therefore, PRECEDE-PROCEED means the community as public health promotion’s wellspring. PRECEDE determines the desired goal for the community and works for the realization of the desired outcome. PROCEED works for the implementation of desired goals. Each part consists of four steps.
The first step of the model we define the outcome. In our issue, it is reducing the incidence of AIDS. The second step is identifying the public issue. It includes obstacles to reach the goals. In AIDS issue, it can be the inability to isolate all patients and HIV positive people. The third step includes the study of factors cause behavior, lifestyle, and environment impact. People know that should use disposable syringes, periodically take AIDS test, and have safe sex. The fourth step using the best practices and includes administrative and policy issues for the best implementation of the intervention’s program. Anonymous testing, the development of AIDS treatment, psychological support organizations are discussing in this step. The next phase includes all interventions and called implementation. All previous developments and approaches are introduced and implemented. The next sixth step called Process Evaluation. In this phase, we can observe conducted testing, psychosocial support, new hospital, etc. The seventh step called Impact Evaluation, and it reports if our outcomes are achieved. The last step is Outcome Evaluation, and we can see if your outcome was reached and the first step was executed or we should start all steps again.
Regulatory, economic and issues of distributive justice are the main key considerations of health issues when assessed at a global level. Master of Public Health will grow and it the issue of the right lifeway will grow as well. It should be noted that the main issues of public health in global level is Roll Back Malaria, TB and Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization and Fight AIDS.
According to McKenzie (2015), “Much planning and work have taken place to improve the health and safety of populations in the twenty-first century.”(p. 32). There are four main theories of global health. The first theory is about the unintended consequences of purposive (or social) action. It states that all social interventions can have any unintended consequences; therefore, some of consequence people can predict and prevent. The example is forced vaccination when it for the most part helps people to have additional immunity; however, some people become disabled because of vaccination side effects.
The second theory is the social construction of reality, and it means that the real world made over into culturally and socially ideas, things and practices ignoring the material base. As an example can be highly contentious discussions about abortion in the USA but not in Japan. Therefore, the brain cancer is widely spread in Japan but not in the USA.
Different public health approaches for the avoidance and prevention social health problems use for the life improvement for people and growing healthy nation. Close cooperation at international level lets public health achieving better results.
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