Chinese History

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Chinese History

1. Most of East Asia regions were disparate over the centuries; however, there occurred specific factors that have tied all of them together. One of the most important factors was the development of Chinese culture and promotion of labor that united the regions. Moreover, ability to produce a number of products provoked the initialization of the first trade relations between the separate regions. Geographical position of the regions suggested similar interests in agricultural and cattle breeding development. The same roots of all regions united them as a whole solid piece that was striving for its development in all the spheres of cultural and economic life. The regions were poor and had no basis for speedy and high quality development. That is why they had to unite in order to survive the cultural dominance of the closest and more powerful countries. The regions started their development in all spheres and this is what made it possible to build a strong and powerful segment of the world economy and culture that is called East Asia.

2. People in Southeast Asia and Mesopotamia started their development in the agricultural sphere earlier than people who inhabited the areas that are now China, Korea and Japan for a number of reasons. The leading reason is geographical position of the Mesopotamia region that was situated on the crossing of the trade and cultural routes of the ancient world. This fact determined earlier development of the instrument and cultivation of new sorts of crops and materials. Rivers, which were the basis of the fastest development of agriculture in the Mesopotamia region, determined the leading profession and early market relations of the population. The areas of China, Korea and Japan were separated from the first global trade routes and did not have all the preferences that were opened before the Mesopotamia region. The accent in these areas was made on the cultural development and dynamic movement of education and literacy. Monarchy was developing and the feudal tendencies of these countries were growing. This played no promoting role for the agriculture in these regions.

3. The emperor Qin Shihuangdi unified China by introducing and enforcing a single script. He made the population feel as a solid nation by making the whole country use measures and the same currency for their general purposes. The main point is that he did everything possible for the people to feel more united, protected and free at the same time. He achieved these results through abolishing the feudal structure of the country, and after that, he reorganized the whole country into smaller counties and states. All of them were under the centralized system of control and protection of the leading government that was ruled by the emperor. All the above mentioned steps were taken to establish peace in the country and to protect the population from the inside. The measures also touched the important steps for protecting people from the outside of the country. All the walls along the northern border were connected between each other to make the construction that is now known as the Great Wall of China. As for the economic steps, te emperor also supported the irrigation system that was applied along the Yangtze Valley, which was a significant help and support for the Chinese population. But the main point is that he made his people feel more unified together.

4. The rule of the Song Dynasty brought an industrial revolution into action in the country. During this period, there were realized significant changes in the sphere of agriculture, textile manufacturing and ceramics production. A significant change came in the sphere of science and knowledge. There were a lot of technological inventions created during the rule of this dynasty. The period in the Chinese history was signified by cultural and artistic revival that led to the greater development of literature, poetic and other artistic spheres. Some of the inventions were determined by the significant military pressure from the outside of the country, which led to major technology implementation in the sphere of arms and military forces. There were some significant changes in the sphere of economy because of the general development of all the other spheres. The new paper currency was established along with the division of labor and greater promotion of handicraft technologies.

5. The period between 1750 and 1911 under the rule of the Qing Dynasty is characterized by the huge increase in the size of population for a number of reasons. The main factor that is responsible for such effect is the increase in the development of all spheres, which led to the growth of living standards and provided prosperity of the population. People were not worried about the food and were not striving to earn for a living because everybody was working and the level of technological progress made it possible to have everything they needed. The number of population began to grow since people were not worried about their financial ability to feed bigger number of children in their family. This period is characterized as the golden age of the country and it promoted the positive thinking of the society that led to the huge population growth.

6. Yi Dynasty merited the honor to be ruling Choson on the Korean peninsula for more than 500 years. This was determined by a number of very important innovations that were promoted by this Dynasty. First of all, they established a new system of values by introducing new religion and substituting Buddhism by Confucianism. Clear and philosophic statements of this ideology formed a new thinking in the society, which made it possible to establish new politics and to implement new standards in all spheres of life. The most significant influence was in the economic and cultural spheres and this leveled up the living standards of people and enabled further development. Another factor is a clear and sophisticated division of power inside their family, where all the political and country affairs were under king’s control and the breeding of moral characteristics and pride of all members of the family was in the power of his wife.

7. The Vietnamese conquer of the south happened due to the simple fact that their population was growing and they had no other direction to expand but southwards. They were bordered with China to the north and there were mountainous regions in the west. The expansion to the south was at a slow pace at first, but it went faster later, when the Vietnamese kings had to fight the Cambodian kings, which made more powerful Siamese warriors fight for them. The territory of Vietnam was expanded during the three wars that took place during those times. However, despite the positive perspective of more land areas, there were some disadvantages as ewll. The southward expansion weakened Vietnamese regions and they became colonies to stronger countries. They were unable to fight the colonization of their territories by Portugal and French traders that came to that territory.

8. During different periods of development of Japanese culture there were specific elements that were adopted from the Chinese culture. The process of penetration of Chinese elements into almost all spheres of other countries of East Asia region is evident because of the dominant role of China over them. The Japanese government adopted social and philosophical structure of the Chinese one, and moreover, it took some ethic norms and all the government structure as the basis. Chinese calendar was also adopted, as well as a number of religious practices that changed through the centuries. Among the most widely spread ones are Buddhism, Taoism and later Confucianism. Furthermore, Japanese culture adopted Chinese written characters and fashion trends. Most of the new tendencies for the cloth and material choice were also promoted under the influence of China.

9. The noble population was against the established politics and they wanted to fight the existing regimen. They were accompanied by the young samurais that wanted to prove their pride and practice their abilities in real life situations. Moreover, it was a period of power and wealth division and noble people were trying to get as much land as possible. The Tokugawa period is characterized by the significant economic and cultural growth, accompanied by strict social and political order. The new system established isolative foreign policy and policies related to environmental protection. Population of the country was enjoying arts and culture immensely and this determined the lower level of tension in the society and established the total governmental control of all spheres of social life.

10. The period between the 1600 and 1868 is characterized by a significant number of positive changes in all spheres of social and political life of Japanese society. The most important changes included the centralization of hereditary power of shogunate. The Tokugawa system took control over the major spheres of social life including religion, economy and costs and taxes of the country. They regulated the nobility and controlled the government spending, harmonically balanced international affairs and regulated the involvement in wars. There were established such important branches of the government as judiciary and legislative powers. In general, this period brought peace and prosperity to the whole nation.

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