Free «Wahhabi Period» Essay Paper
The issue of Wahhabism occupies one of the most important places in the contemporary discourse. Without a doubt, this ultraconservative religious movement gives rise to a hot debate due to peculiar notions that can be interpreted in the prescribed context. According to the recent research, the perception of this item varies depending on different countries’ representatives. That is why this term is worth evaluating from various perspectives. Thus, this paper is to analyze particular features presented in the creation of Omani and British authors, accurately estimate the received information, and provide a critical analysis dedicated to this theme.
The rise of Wahhabism during the 19th century became an ordinary practice owing to specific historical conditions that dominated on the Arabian peninsula. As a result, this movement became a widespread conception that covered leading spheres of the population’s existence. The whole society experienced a tremendous influence of the Beniyas clan whose power and authority were rather significant on the vast stretches. Indeed, inhabitants of these territories were likely to overcome numerous aggressive fights and interventions that were treated as common phenomena in the Middle East. Reformers and ideological leaders manifested apparent perspectives of the further advancement to gain some noticeable achievements, using the religious factor and ideology as the most wide-spread techniques. Attention should be paid to the fact that the Easter society, whose mental spirit and patriotism had augmented due to such policy, cooperated voluntarily. Expressing political obedience, they applied necessary actions to achieve glory, prosperity, and development for their forming states.
In this respect, engendering of the Wahhabism Movement may be considered from diverse perspectives. This conception firstly appeared in the context of Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab’s reign who turned out to be an ideological leader of the movement. Analyzing the chosen sources, it is worth outlining that both Omani and British writers agreed on the definition of this word in terms of etymology. Remarkably, the British government also adopted and broadened the usage of this concept in the selected historical period.
Having conducted the relevant research, it should be mentioned that these resources portray distinguishing characteristics of the Wahhabi period, analyzing prominent notions of this cultural tendency. Despite the fact that the authors depict development of this ideology, each of them uses an individual approach to the clarification of reality. Envisaging complicated conditions of permanently altered governmental institutions on the territory of Saudi Arabia, it is worth underlining that comprehension of the same events and occurrences may differ due to the personal system of established beliefs. Nevertheless, each position requires a precise evaluation as it describes numerous distinctions relating to the Wahhabism Movement.
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Providing a clear difference between the Omani and British literature, it should be taken into consideration that the first source, which belongs to the group of Easter culture, focuses on the geographical aspect of this issue (Niebuhr, 1792, p. 127). The author points out at a prominent connection between the factor of location and the heritage of religious roots, traditions, customs, stereotypes, and prejudices. Interpreting the European vision, he is to examine the causes of the empire’s might and stability. Moreover, the writer carefully studies development of Wahhabism in the province of Nedsjed, generalizing history and mentality of its inhabitants.
The following article focuses on the question of the leading authorities that ruled during this historical epoch. Investigating the subject of Sunnites and their persecution, the valuable analysis faces some alterations in comparison with other outlined works. Assuming an autobiographical vision, the imams of Oman are interpreted as main characters whose power, leadership values, and authority had a tremendous impact on the development of the movement. For instance, the reign of Sa’id – ibn – Ahmed was considered as the most prosperous epoch (Raziq, n. d., p. 168). Owing to such approach, the scientist applies a descriptive technique to the process of governing. Under the concept of strict integrity, political considerations can be treated as a methodological approach to interpretation of reality. Conventionally, the author also embodies the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, which is evaded by other researchers of this issue.
On the contrary, the British literature reveals the aspect of progress and degradation of uncoordinated tribes. Kelly (1964) points out that the chaotic nature of the Wahhabism Movement was one of the most important causes that did not ensure a sustainable development of the nation (p. 61). Owing to such approach, he criticizes numerous historical modifications that the Muslim community had to experience. What is more, he focuses on the fact that this society was not ready to accept radical changes proposed and embedded by the leading authorities. The author evaluates that the factor of ideology was not sufficient to establish and keep the balanced system of governing. The writer elucidates appearance of the Wahhabi period as a natural occurrence relating to the British policy and French economic interests in this region (Kelly, 1964, p. 57). He remarks that the British model of expansionism in the Persian Gulf Region might appear to be a source of hidden radicalization and violence in the nearest future.
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To sum up, it is essential to highlight that these sources represent a powerful instrumental tool of comprehending peculiar notions concerning the Wahhabi period. They outline distinguishing characteristics of different representatives and evaluate this situation from independent perspectives. In the sphere of revealing the historical truth, a comparative analysis of two sides of this issue assists with obtaining a complete picture of reality. Free of any political influence, these sources provide an accurate image of the Wahhabi period. As a result, the papers promote favorable conditions for the following research.